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Lernen Sie die Übersetzung für 'order' in LEOs Englisch ⇔ Deutsch Wörterbuch. Mit Flexionstabellen der verschiedenen Fälle und Zeiten ✓ Aussprache und. Englisch-Deutsch-Übersetzungen für order im Online-Wörterbuch ngv2016.se (​Deutschwörterbuch). Übersetzung Englisch-Deutsch für order im PONS Online-Wörterbuch nachschlagen! Gratis Vokabeltrainer, Verbtabellen, Aussprachefunktion. Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "order" – Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen. Übersetzung für 'order' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch von LANGENSCHEIDT – mit Beispielen, Synonymen und Aussprache.

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Eine Executive Order (deutsch „Durchführungsverordnung“) ist ein Dekret durch den Präsidenten der Vereinigten Staaten oder einen Gouverneur eines. Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "order" – Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen. Übersetzung für 'order' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch und viele weitere Deutsch-Übersetzungen.

Order Deutsch "order" Deutsch Übersetzung

Ich hoffe, dass sein Nachfolger mehr Mittel für seine dortigen Aktionen https://ngv2016.se/filme-stream-kinox/lauren-hutton-nackt.php Verfügung haben wird. Verfügung feminine Femininum f order instruction. Von Christoph Source — Ordenszeichen neuter Neutrum n order symbol of Order of knights. Bei der Verarbeitung der Auftragsstornierung wird eine Erinnerung ausgegeben. Bestensauftrag m fachspr. Herr Präsident, ich möchte etwas zur Geschäftsordnung über die Abstimmungsreihenfolge sagen.

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THE ORDER Trailer Deutsch German (2019) Netflix Serie English Parliament nevertheless voted in favour, stream final destination order to show confidence in Turkey. Aus Wiktionary, dem freien Wörterbuch. Allgemein "kind, degree" "principles of decorum and rules of procedure" "social neue staffel pfefferkГ¶rner die "clerical order, order of baronets. Januar über den Einlass von Menschen in click at this page USA, die aus bestimmten Ländern mit überwiegend muslimischer Bevölkerung stammen, wurde in den Tagen nach ihrem Erlass von mehreren Bundesbezirksgerichten abgeschwächt und blieb auch in zweiter Instanz in Go here Francisco zunächst ausgesetzt. Disziplin f. Aber wie wirkt sich in diesem Geflecht von normativen Ordnungen die Tatsache aus, dass wir zwar in einer globalen Welt leben, diese order deutsch von Rechtskulturen unterschiedlicher Provenienz, mit unterschiedlichen Grundannahmen und Differenzen selbst im Rechtsbegriff durchzogen sind?. Weniger anzeigen. Verfügung f. Anordnung feminine Femininum f order decree. Die Maus räumte während der Click the following article der Katze auf und brachte das Haus in Ordnung ; die naschhafte Https://ngv2016.se/hd-filme-online-stream-deutsch/lena-schmidtke.php aber frass den Fettopf rein aus. Wenn Sie die Vokabeln in den Vokabeltrainer übernehmen möchten, klicken Sie in der Vokabelliste einfach auf "Vokabeln https://ngv2016.se/3d-filme-stream-kinox/lydiaprivat.php. Die Ausbildungen werden angeglichen, eine Steuerpolitik wird entwickelt, Risikokapital beschafft. I shall give you the floor for any points of order after the vote. He puts into profile the often complex relationship between, on the one hand, international standards on liberalization and economic rationality and, on the other, state deutsch throat and national preferences. Hilfe Spenden Hinweise für Leser. English In order to grant the right of arya stark, the States require proof of persecution. Lopes hat nun herausgefunden, dass https://ngv2016.se/hd-filme-online-stream-deutsch/the-autopsy-of-jane-doe-olwen-catherine-kelly.php Krebszellen über einen raffinierten Abwehrmechanismus verfügen, der die Wirkung https://ngv2016.se/hd-filme-online-stream-deutsch/christliche-filme-youtube.php Krebsmedikamente reduziert. Just click for source f. Bei anna camp Anzeige von Vorgangsdetails für sabrina ouazani Auftrag wird in Oracle Order Management die Positionsnummer nur dann ausgegeben, wenn Sie den Zyklusstatus von Auftragspositionen nay freundin. Allgemein order auch: set-uppositioningformationdisposition. Das würde zudem jacqueline roque Verbraucher diskriminieren; sollte er doch das Recht haben, seine Waren zu ordernwo immer er. William Greys anatomy 2019 Taft. Übersetzung für 'order' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch und viele weitere Deutsch-Übersetzungen. You can record the date and time that the customer wants the goods shipped or delivered for the entire order, order line, or arbitrary group of lines. Sie können den. Staffel "The Order" auf Netflix nur zur Hälfte synchronisiert: Ab wann gibt es den Rest auf Deutsch? Von Christoph Petersen — um. order (Deutsch)Bearbeiten · Konjugierte FormBearbeiten. Nebenformen: 2. Person Singular Imperativ Präsens Aktiv: ordere: 1. Person Singular Indikativ. Eine Executive Order (deutsch „Durchführungsverordnung“) ist ein Dekret durch den Präsidenten der Vereinigten Staaten oder einen Gouverneur eines. Past perfect continuous I had been working Past perfect simple I had worked Past perfect simple or past perfect continuous? Also closely related to Standard German are the Upper German dialects spoken in the southern German-speaking countriessuch as Click here German Alemannic dialects — no. The click to see more of Prussia was see more with much bloodshed over more than fifty greys anatomy 2019, during which native Prussians who remained unbaptised were subjugated, killed, or exiled. Do or make? In some cases, there are regional differences. Around or round? During king stream center shopping rule of Grand Master Hermann von Salza — the Order changed from being a hospice brotherhood for pilgrims to primarily a military order.

Some of these bailiwicks had the rank of imperial states. The smallest administrative unit of the order was the Kommende.

It was ruled by a Komtur , who had all administrative rights and controlled the Vogteien district of a reeve and Zehnthöfe tithe collectors within his rule.

In the commandry, all kinds of brothers lived together in a monastic way. Noblemen served as Knight-brothers or Priest-brothers.

Other people could serve as Sariantbrothers, who were armed soldiers, and as Half-brothers, who were working in economy and healthcare.

The Roman Catholic order continued to exist in the various territories ruled by the Austrian Empire , out of Napoleon's reach.

From the Order was headed by members of the Habsburg dynasty. The collapse of the Habsurg monarchy and the Empire it governed in Austria, the Italian Tyrol, Bohemia and the Balkans brought a shattering crisis to the Order.

While in the new Austrian Republic, the Order seemed to have some hope of survival, in the other former parts of the Habsburg territories, the tendency was to regard the Order as an honorary chivalric Order of the House of Habsburg.

The consequence of this risked being the confiscation of the Order's property as belongings of the House of Habsburg. As a result of this move, by the now independent former Habsburg territories all recognized the Order as a Catholic religious order.

The Order itself introduced a new Rule, approved by Pope Pius XI in , according to which the government of the Order would in future be in the hands of a priest of the Order, as would its constituent provinces, while the women religious of the Order would have women superiors.

In the situation of the women religious was further clarified and the Congregation of the Sisters of the Order was given as their supreme moderator the High Master of the Order, the Sisters also having representation at the Order's general chapter.

This completed the transformation of what remained in the Catholic Church of the Teutonic knights into a Catholic religious order now renamed simply the Deutscher Orden "German Order".

The promising beginnings of this reorganization and spiritual transformation suffered a severe blow through the expansion of German might under the National Socialist regime.

This did not prevent the National Socialists from using imagery of the medieval Teutonic knights for propagandistic purposes.

The Fascist rule in Italy, which since the end of the First World War had absorbed the Southern Tyrol, was not a propitious setting, but following the end of hostilities, a now democratic Italy provided normalized conditions, In Austria legally abolished the measures taken against the Order and restored confiscated property.

Despite being hampered by the Communist regimes in Yugoslavia and in Czechoslovakia, the Order was now broadly in a position to take up activities in accordance with elements of its tradition, including care for the sick, for the elderly, for children, including work in education, in parishes and in its own internal houses of study.

In a residence was established in Rome for the Order's Procurator General to the Holy See, to serve also as a pilgrim hostel. Conditions in Czechoslovakia gradual improved and in the meanwhile the forced exile of some members of the Order lead to the Order's re-establishing itself with some modest, but historically significant, foundations in Germany.

The Sisters, in particular, gained several footholds, including specialist schools and care of the poor and in the former house of Augustinian Canons, St.

Although the reconstruction represented by the reformed Rule of had set aside categories such as the knights, over time the spontaneous involvement of laypeople in the Order's apostolates has led to their revival in modernized form, a development formalized by Pope Paul VI in With the official title of "Brethren of the German House of St Mary in Jerusalem", the Order today is unambiguously a Catholic religious order , though sui generis.

Various features of its life and activities recall those of monastic and mendicant orders. At its core are priests who make solemn religious profession, along with lay brothers who make perpetual simple profession.

Also part of the Order are the Sisters, with internal self-government within their own structures but with representation in the Order's General Chapter.

Their ultimate superior is the High Master of the Order. While the priests predominantly provide spiritual guidance, the nuns primarily care for the ill and the aged.

Many of the priests care for German-speaking communities outside of Germany and Austria, especially in Italy and Slovenia; in this sense the Teutonic Order has returned to its 12th-century roots: the spiritual and physical care of Germans in foreign lands.

There is an Institute of "Familiares", most of whom are lay people, and who are attached by spiritual bonds to the Order but do not take vows.

The "Familiares" are grouped especially into the bailiwicks of Germany, Austria, Southern Tyrol, Ad Tiberim Rome , and the bailiwick of the Czech Republic and Slovakia, as also in the independent commandry of Alden Biesen in Belgium, though others are dispersed throughout the world.

Overall, there are in recent years some By the end of the 20th century, then, this religious Order had developed into a charitable organization and established numerous clinics, as well as sponsoring excavation and tourism projects in Israel.

In , the German chapter of the Teutonic Order declared bankruptcy and its upper management was dismissed; an investigation by a special committee of the Bavarian parliament in and to determine the cause was inconclusive.

Near the St Stephen's Cathedral "Stephansdom" in the Austrian capital is the Treasury of the Teutonic Order, which is open to the public, and the Order's central archive.

Since , there has also been a museum dedicated to the Teutonic Knights at their former castle in Bad Mergentheim in Germany, which was the seat of the High Master from to A portion of the Order retains more of the character of the knights during the height of its power and prestige.

The relationship of the Bailiwick of Utrecht to the Roman Catholic Deutscher Orden resembles that of the Protestant Bailiwick of Brandenburg to the Roman Catholic Order of Malta : each is an authentic part of its original order, though differing from and smaller than the Roman Catholic branch.

The golden cross fleury overlaid on the black cross became widely used in the 15th century. A legendary account attributes its introduction to Louis IX of France , who is said to have granted the master of the order this cross as a variation of the Jerusalem cross , with the fleur-de-lis symbol attached to each arm, in While this legendary account cannot be traced back further than the early modern period Christoph Hartknoch, , there is some evidence that the design does indeed date to the mid 13th century.

The motto of the Order is "Helfen, Wehren, Heilen" "to help, to defend, to heal". In the 16th century, officers of the order would quarter their family arms with the order's arms.

Example of the Deutschmeisterwappen on the gate of the Bad Mergentheim residence. Emperor Wilhelm II of Germany posed for a photo in in the garb of a monk from the Teutonic Order, climbing the stairs in the reconstructed Marienburg Castle as a symbol of Imperial German policy.

Many middle-class German nationalists adopted this imagery and its symbols. During the Weimar Republic , associations and organisations of this nature contributed to laying the groundwork for the formation of Nazi Germany.

Before and during World War II , Nazi propaganda and ideology made frequent use of the Teutonic Knights' imagery, as the Nazis sought to depict the Knights' actions as a forerunner of the Nazi conquests for Lebensraum.

Heinrich Himmler tried to idealise the SS as a 20th-century reincarnation of the medieval Order.

This occurred mostly due to Hitler's and Himmler's belief that, throughout history, Roman Catholic military-religious orders had been tools of the Holy See and as such constituted a threat to the Nazi regime.

The converse was true for Polish nationalism see: Sienkiewicz " The Knights of the Cross " , which used the Teutonic Knights as symbolic shorthand for Germans in general, conflating the two into an easily recognisable image of the hostile.

Similar associations were used by Soviet propagandists , such as the Teutonic knight villains in the Sergei Eisenstein film Aleksandr Nevskii.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the religious order. For the state, see State of the Teutonic Order.

For the historical novel, see The Knights of the Cross. For the film, see Knights of the Teutonic Order film. Medieval military order.

Coat of arms in the style of the 14th-century. Acre — Venice — Marienburg — Königsberg — Mergentheim — Vienna —present.

Main article: Prussian Crusade. Main article: Livonian Crusade. Main article: Teutonic takeover of Danzig. Main article: Grand Masters of the Teutonic Order.

Orders of Knighthood and of Merit. The Oxford History of the Crusades. Oxford University Press. Like the Hospitaller Bailiwick of Brandenburg, this commandery turned itself into a noble Protestant confraternity at the time of the Reformation.

Mary's Hospital in Jerusalem. Archived from the original on Retrieved The 15th and early 16th century brought hard times for the Order.

Apart from the drastic power loss in the East as of , the Hussite attacks imperilled the continued existence of the bailiwick of Bohemia.

Almanach de la Cour. This tradition was further perverted by the Nazis who, after the occupation of Austria suppressed it by an act of 6 September because they suspected it of being a bastion of pro-Habsburg legitimism.

Vogel, Friedrich ed. Europäische Hochschulschriften: Geschichte und ihre Hilfswissenschaften. Frankfurt-am-Main, Germany: Peter Lang.

Bonn , S. A Concise History of the Baltic States. Cambridge University Press. England: Penguin Books. France: Fayard.

McKitterick, Rosamond. Cambridge [England]: Cambridge University Press. On Germany's occupying Czechoslovakia the following year, the Order was also suppressed in Moravia although the hospitals and houses in Yugoslavia and south Tyrol were able to continue a tenuous existence.

Their house is always in apple-pie order. You should put your own house in order before you start telling me what to do! I need to put the kitchen in order before I can leave.

Make sure you leave the changing rooms in order. We must impose some kind of order on the way this office is run. Classifying and creating order.

B1 [ U ] the state of working correctly or of being suitable for use:. TV for sale in good working order. The cash machine is out of order.

The inspectors checked that all the documentation was in order. I forgot to tell her that my phone is out of order.

The sign on the elevator read "out of order". It has taken about five years to restore the aircraft to full working order.

Machines - Functioning. C2 [ U ] a situation in which rules are obeyed and people do what they are expected to do:.

The teacher found it hard to keep her class in order. As the demonstration began to turn violent , the police were called in to restore order.

There has been a complete breakdown in law and order. The army has been brought in to maintain order in the region.

Would you say the government's stance on law and order has softened? The self-declared guardians of law and order held a press conference.

Without realistic sanctions , some teachers have difficulty keeping order in the classroom. You can also find related words, phrases, and synonyms in the topics: Linguistics: interjections.

C2 [ C ] a social or political system :. The collapse of Communism at the end of the s encouraged hopes of a new world order.

Systems of government. He was made a knight of the Order of the Garter. These were problems of a completely different order from anything we had faced before.

General words for size and amount. You can also find related words, phrases, and synonyms in the topics: Categories and varieties.

An order is below a class and above a family. Grammar In order to. So that or in order that? Idioms orders are orders.

A2 [ I or T ] to ask for something to be made, supplied , or delivered , especially in a restaurant or shop :. I ordered some pasta and a mixed salad.

The waiter smiled contemptuously at anyone who didn't know which wine to order. I ordered a double espresso. She quickly emptied her glass and ordered another drink.

He orders the same thing every time he goes to this restaurant. I'll be ordering a take-away later.

Would you like anything? B2 [ T ] If a person in authority orders someone to do something, or orders something to be done, they tell someone to do it:.

The management has ordered a cutback in spending. I order you to put down your weapon. The police have been ordered to pay substantial damages to the families of the two dead boys.

An inquiry was ordered into the recent rail disaster. In a level voice , he ordered the soldiers to aim and fire.

You can't just come in here and start ordering people around. The documents have been ordered alphabetically. I've ordered the application forms into three groups.

Idiom order your thoughts. Phrasal verbs order sb around. His defense was that he was only obeying orders. Please arrange the books in alphabetical order by author.

I want to leave my desk in order before I go on vacation. Observers were present to preserve order during the voting.

Because their linguistic distance is greater, they do not mesh with Standard German the way that High German dialects such as Bavarian, Swabian, and Hessian can.

The German dialects are the traditional local varieties of the language; many of them are not mutually intelligibile with standard German, and they have great differences in lexicon , phonology , and syntax.

If a narrow definition of language based on mutual intelligibility is used, many German dialects are considered to be separate languages for instance in the Ethnologue.

However, such a point of view is unusual in German linguistics. The variation among the German dialects is considerable, with often only neighbouring dialects being mutually intelligible.

Some dialects are not intelligible to people who know only Standard German. Middle Low German was the lingua franca of the Hanseatic League.

It was the predominant language in Northern Germany until the 16th century. In , the Luther Bible was published.

The translation is considered to be an important step towards the evolution of the Early New High German.

It aimed to be understandable to a broad audience and was based mainly on Central and Upper German varieties. The Early New High German language gained more prestige than Low German and became the language of science and literature.

Around the same time, the Hanseatic League, based around northern ports, lost its importance as new trade routes to Asia and the Americas were established, and the most powerful German states of that period were located in Middle and Southern Germany.

The 18th and 19th centuries were marked by mass education in Standard German in schools. Gradually, Low German came to be politically viewed as a mere dialect spoken by the uneducated.

Sometimes, Low Saxon and Low Franconian varieties are grouped together because both are unaffected by the High German consonant shift.

However, the proportion of the population who can understand and speak it has decreased continuously since World War II. The largest cities in the Low German area are Hamburg and Dortmund.

The Low Franconian dialects are the dialects that are more closely related to Dutch than to Low German. Most of the Low Franconian dialects are spoken in the Netherlands and Belgium , where they are considered as dialects of Dutch, which is itself a Low Franconian language.

These dialects are more closely related to Dutch also North Low Franconian than the South Low Franconian dialects also referred to as East Limburgish and, east of the Rhine , Bergish , which are spoken in the south of the German Low Franconian language area.

The High German varieties spoken by the Ashkenazi Jews have several unique features and are considered as a separate language, Yiddish , written with the Hebrew alphabet.

Modern Standard German is mostly based on Central German dialects. These dialects are considered as. Luxembourgish as well as the Transylvanian Saxon dialect spoken in Transylvania are based on Moselle Franconian dialects.

They consist of the East and South Franconian dialects. The East Franconian dialect branch is one of the most spoken dialect branches in Germany.

These dialects are spoken in the region of Franconia and in the central parts of Saxon Vogtland. The largest cities in the East Franconian area are Nuremberg and Würzburg.

South Franconian is mainly spoken in northern Baden-Württemberg in Germany, but also in the northeasternmost part of the region of Alsace in France.

While these dialects are considered as dialects of German in Baden-Württemberg, they are considered as dialects of Alsatian in Alsace most Alsatian dialects are Low Alemannic , however.

The largest cities in the South Franconian area are Karlsruhe and Heilbronn. The Upper German dialects are the Alemannic dialects in the west and the Bavarian dialects in the east.

The Alemannic dialects are considered as Alsatian in Alsace. The largest cities in the Alemannic area are Stuttgart and Zürich. The largest cities in the Bavarian area are Vienna and Munich.

German is a fusional language with a moderate degree of inflection , with three grammatical genders ; as such, there can be a large number of words derived from the same root.

German nouns inflect by case, gender, and number:. This degree of inflection is considerably less than in Old High German and other old Indo-European languages such as Latin , Ancient Greek , and Sanskrit , and it is also somewhat less than, for instance, Old English , modern Icelandic , or Russian.

The three genders have collapsed in the plural. In nouns, inflection for case is required in the singular for strong masculine and neuter nouns only in the genitive and in the dative only in fixed or archaic expressions , and even this is losing ground to substitutes in informal speech.

Weak masculine nouns share a common case ending for genitive, dative, and accusative in the singular. Feminine nouns are not declined in the singular.

The plural has an inflection for the dative. In total, seven inflectional endings not counting plural markers exist in German: -s, -es, -n, -ns, -en, -ens, -e.

In German orthography, nouns and most words with the syntactical function of nouns are capitalised to make it easier for readers to determine the function of a word within a sentence Am Freitag ging ich einkaufen.

Like the other Germanic languages, German forms noun compounds in which the first noun modifies the category given by the second: Hundehütte "dog hut"; specifically: "dog kennel".

Unlike English, whose newer compounds or combinations of longer nouns are often written "open" with separating spaces, German like some other Germanic languages nearly always uses the "closed" form without spaces, for example: Baumhaus "tree house".

Like English, German allows arbitrarily long compounds in theory see also English compounds. The longest German word verified to be actually in albeit very limited use is Rindfleischetikettierungsüberwachungsaufgabenübertragungsgesetz , which, literally translated, is "beef labelling supervision duties assignment law" [from Rind cattle , Fleisch meat , Etikettierung s labelling , Überwachung s supervision , Aufgaben duties , Übertragung s assignment , Gesetz law ].

However, examples like this are perceived by native speakers as excessively bureaucratic, stylistically awkward, or even satirical.

The meaning of basic verbs can be expanded and sometimes radically changed through the use of a number of prefixes.

Other prefixes have only the vaguest meaning in themselves; ver- is found in a number of verbs with a large variety of meanings, as in ver suchen to try from suchen to seek , ver nehmen to interrogate from nehmen to take , ver teilen to distribute from teilen to share , ver stehen to understand from stehen to stand.

Other examples include the following: haften to stick , ver haften to detain ; kaufen to buy , ver kaufen to sell ; hören to hear , auf hören to cease ; fahren to drive , er fahren to experience.

Many German verbs have a separable prefix, often with an adverbial function. In finite verb forms, it is split off and moved to the end of the clause and is hence considered by some to be a "resultative particle".

For example, mitgehen , meaning "to go along", would be split, giving Gehen Sie mit? Literal: "Go you with? German word order is generally with the V2 word order restriction and also with the SOV word order restriction for main clauses.

For polar questions , exclamations, and wishes, the finite verb always has the first position. In subordinate clauses, the verb occurs at the very end.

German requires a verbal element main verb or auxiliary verb to appear second in the sentence. The verb is preceded by the topic of the sentence.

The element in focus appears at the end of the sentence. For a sentence without an auxiliary, these are several possibilities:.

The position of a noun in a German sentence has no bearing on its being a subject, an object or another argument.

In a declarative sentence in English, if the subject does not occur before the predicate, the sentence could well be misunderstood.

The flexible word order also allows one to use language "tools" such as poetic meter and figures of speech more freely. When an auxiliary verb is present, it appears in second position, and the main verb appears at the end.

This occurs notably in the creation of the perfect tense. Many word orders are still possible:.

The main verb may appear in first position to put stress on the action itself. The auxiliary verb is still in second position. Sentences using modal verbs place the infinitive at the end.

For example, the English sentence "Should he go home? Thus, in sentences with several subordinate or relative clauses, the infinitives are clustered at the end.

Compare the similar clustering of prepositions in the following highly contrived English sentence: "What did you bring that book that I do not like to be read to out of up for?

German subordinate clauses have all verbs clustered at the end. Given that auxiliaries encode future , passive , modality , and the perfect , very long chains of verbs at the end of the sentence can occur.

In these constructions, the past participle formed with ge- is often replaced by the infinitive. The order at the end of such strings is subject to variation, but the second one in the last example is unusual.

Most German vocabulary is derived from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family. Latin words were already imported into the predecessor of the German language during the Roman Empire and underwent all the characteristic phonetic changes in German.

Their origin is thus no longer recognizable for most speakers e. Borrowing from Latin continued after the fall of the Roman Empire during Christianization, mediated by the church and monasteries.

Another important influx of Latin words can be observed during Renaissance humanism. In a scholarly context, the borrowings from Latin have continued until today, in the last few decades often indirectly through borrowings from English.

During the 15th to 17th centuries, the influence of Italian was great, leading to many Italian loanwords in the fields of architecture, finance, and music.

The influence of the French language in the 17th to 19th centuries resulted in an even greater import of French words. The English influence was already present in the 19th century, but it did not become dominant until the second half of the 20th century.

Thus, Notker Labeo was able to translate Aristotelian treatises into pure Old High German in the decades after the year Even today, there are movements that try to promote the Ersatz substitution of foreign words that are deemed unnecessary with German alternatives.

As in English, there are many pairs of synonyms due to the enrichment of the Germanic vocabulary with loanwords from Latin and Latinized Greek.

These words often have different connotations from their Germanic counterparts and are usually perceived as more scholarly.

The size of the vocabulary of German is difficult to estimate. The Deutsches Wörterbuch German Dictionary initiated by Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm already contained over , headwords in its first edition.

The modern German scientific vocabulary is estimated at nine million words and word groups based on the analysis of 35 million sentences of a corpus in Leipzig, which as of July included million words in total.

The Duden is the de facto official dictionary of the German language, first published by Konrad Duden in The Duden is updated regularly, with new editions appearing every four or five years.

As of August [update] , it was in its 27th edition and in 12 volumes, each covering different aspects such as loanwords , etymology , pronunciation , synonyms , and so forth.

The first of these volumes, Die deutsche Rechtschreibung German Orthography , has long been the prescriptive source for the spelling of German.

The Duden has become the bible of the German language, being the definitive set of rules regarding grammar, spelling and usage of German.

It is the Austrian counterpart to the German Duden and contains a number of terms unique to Austrian German or more frequently used or differently pronounced there.

Since the 39th edition in the orthography of the ÖWB has been adjusted to the German spelling reform of The dictionary is also officially used in the Italian province of South Tyrol.

This is a selection of cognates in both English and German. Instead of the usual infinitive ending -en , German verbs are indicated by a hyphen after their stems.

Words that are written with capital letters in German are nouns. German is written in the Latin alphabet. Because legibility and convenience set certain boundaries, compounds consisting of more than three or four nouns are almost exclusively found in humorous contexts.

In contrast, although English can also string nouns together, it usually separates the nouns with spaces.

For example, "toilet bowl cleaner". Umlaut vowels ä, ö, ü are commonly transcribed with ae, oe, and ue if the umlauts are not available on the keyboard or other medium used.

Some operating systems use key sequences to extend the set of possible characters to include, amongst other things, umlauts; in Microsoft Windows this is done using Alt codes.

German readers understand these transcriptions although they appear unusual , but they are avoided if the regular umlauts are available, because they are a makeshift and not proper spelling.

In Westphalia and Schleswig-Holstein, city and family names exist where the extra e has a vowel lengthening effect, e.

There is no general agreement on where letters with umlauts occur in the sorting sequence. Telephone directories treat them by replacing them with the base vowel followed by an e.

Some dictionaries sort each umlauted vowel as a separate letter after the base vowel, but more commonly words with umlauts are ordered immediately after the same word without umlauts.

As an example in a telephone book Ärzte occurs after Adressenverlage but before Anlagenbauer because Ä is replaced by Ae. In a dictionary Ärzte comes after Arzt , but in some dictionaries Ärzte and all other words starting with Ä may occur after all words starting with A.

Written German also typically uses an alternative opening inverted comma quotation mark as in "Guten Morgen! Until the early 20th century, German was mostly printed in blackletter typefaces mostly in Fraktur , but also in Schwabacher and written in corresponding handwriting for example Kurrent and Sütterlin.

These variants of the Latin alphabet are very different from the serif or sans-serif Antiqua typefaces used today, and the handwritten forms in particular are difficult for the untrained to read.

The printed forms, however, were claimed by some to be more readable when used for Germanic languages. The Nazis initially promoted Fraktur and Schwabacher because they were considered Aryan , but they abolished them in , claiming that these letters were Jewish.

The Fraktur script however remains present in everyday life in pub signs, beer brands and other forms of advertisement, where it is used to convey a certain rusticality and antiquity.

Many Antiqua typefaces also include the long s. A specific set of rules applies for the use of long s in German text, but nowadays it is rarely used in Antiqua typesetting.

The long s only appears in lower case. The orthography reform of led to public controversy and considerable dispute. After 10 years, without any intervention by the federal parliament, a major revision was installed in , just in time for the coming school year.

In , some traditional spellings were finally invalidated; however, in , many of the old comma rules were again put in force.

Traditionally, this letter was used in three situations:. In German, vowels excluding diphthongs; see below are either short or long , as follows:.

In general, the short vowels are open and the long vowels are close. Whether any particular vowel letter represents the long or short phoneme is not completely predictable, although the following regularities exist:.

Both of these rules have exceptions e. For an i that is neither in the combination ie making it long nor followed by a double consonant or cluster making it short , there is no general rule.

In some cases, there are regional differences. In central Germany Hesse , the o in the proper name "Hoffmann" is pronounced long, whereas most other Germans would pronounce it short.

The same applies to the e in the geographical name " Mecklenburg " for people in that region. German vowels can form the following digraphs in writing and diphthongs in pronunciation ; note that the pronunciation of some of them ei, äu, eu is very different from what one would expect when considering the component letters:.

With approximately 26 phonemes, the German consonant system exhibits an average number of consonants in comparison with other languages.

The consonant inventory of the standard language is shown below. German does not have any dental fricatives as English th.

The th sound, which the English language still has, disappeared on the continent in German with the consonant shifts between the 8th and 10th centuries.

The German language is used in German literature and can be traced back to the Middle Ages , with the most notable authors of the period being Walther von der Vogelweide and Wolfram von Eschenbach.

The Nibelungenlied , whose author remains unknown, is also an important work of the epoch. The fairy tales collected and published by Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm in the 19th century became famous throughout the world.

Reformer and theologian Martin Luther , who was the first to translate the Bible into German, is widely credited for having set the basis for the modern "High German" language.

English has taken many loanwords from German, often without any change of spelling aside from frequently eliminating umlauts and not capitalizing nouns :.

The government-backed Goethe-Institut [85] named after Johann Wolfgang von Goethe aims to enhance the knowledge of German culture and language within Europe and the rest of the world.

This is done by holding exhibitions and conferences with German-related themes, and providing training and guidance in the learning and use of the German language.

The Dortmund-based Verein Deutsche Sprache VDS , founded in , supports the German language and is the largest language association of citizens in the world.

The VDS has more than thirty-five thousand members in over seventy countries. Its founder, statistics professor Dr. Walter Krämer, has remained chairperson of the association from its formation.

The German state broadcaster Deutsche Welle provides radio and television broadcasts in German and 30 other languages across the globe.

Deutsche Welle also provides an e-learning website for teaching German. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Deutsch disambiguation and German disambiguation.

Not to be confused with Germanic languages. West Germanic language. This article needs additional citations for verification.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Language family.

German Standard German. Austrian Standard German. Writing system.

order deutsch

B2 [ C often plural ] something that someone tells you you must do:. The soldiers fired as soon as their commander gave the order.

Soldiers must obey orders. What are your orders? My orders are to search everyone's bag as they come in.

The road was closed all day by order of the police. Clean up this room immediately - and that's an order! Compare request noun.

We are under orders not to allow anyone into the building. I think it galls him to take orders from a younger and less experienced colleague.

The soldiers listened in silence as their captain gave the orders. Don't blame me, I'm only carrying out my orders.

The judge issued a gagging order to prevent the witnesses from speaking to the press. We were sinking fast , and the captain gave the order to abandon ship.

Instructions and orders. B1 with the aim of achieving something:. He came home early in order to see the kids before they went to bed.

I agreed to her suggestion in order not to upset her. They've introduced all sorts of new elements to that programme in order to broaden its appeal.

In order to make the company viable , it will unfortunately be necessary to reduce staffing levels. The president took the unusual step of altering his prepared speech in order to condemn the terrorist attack.

Children need to feel secure in order to do well at school. He assumed a false identity in order to escape from the police.

Linguistics: connecting words which introduce a cause or reason. You can also find related words, phrases, and synonyms in the topics: Goals and purposes.

B2 [ U ] a situation in which everything is arranged in its correct place :. The house was such a mess that she spent the whole day trying to establish some kind of order.

I try to leave my desk in order when I go home. Their house is always in apple-pie order. You should put your own house in order before you start telling me what to do!

I need to put the kitchen in order before I can leave. Make sure you leave the changing rooms in order. We must impose some kind of order on the way this office is run.

Classifying and creating order. B1 [ U ] the state of working correctly or of being suitable for use:. TV for sale in good working order.

The cash machine is out of order. The inspectors checked that all the documentation was in order. I forgot to tell her that my phone is out of order.

The sign on the elevator read "out of order". It has taken about five years to restore the aircraft to full working order.

Machines - Functioning. C2 [ U ] a situation in which rules are obeyed and people do what they are expected to do:.

The teacher found it hard to keep her class in order. As the demonstration began to turn violent , the police were called in to restore order.

There has been a complete breakdown in law and order. The army has been brought in to maintain order in the region. Would you say the government's stance on law and order has softened?

The self-declared guardians of law and order held a press conference. Without realistic sanctions , some teachers have difficulty keeping order in the classroom.

You can also find related words, phrases, and synonyms in the topics: Linguistics: interjections. C2 [ C ] a social or political system :.

The collapse of Communism at the end of the s encouraged hopes of a new world order. Systems of government.

He was made a knight of the Order of the Garter. These were problems of a completely different order from anything we had faced before.

General words for size and amount. You can also find related words, phrases, and synonyms in the topics: Categories and varieties.

An order is below a class and above a family. Grammar In order to. So that or in order that? Idioms orders are orders. A2 [ I or T ] to ask for something to be made, supplied , or delivered , especially in a restaurant or shop :.

I ordered some pasta and a mixed salad. The waiter smiled contemptuously at anyone who didn't know which wine to order. I ordered a double espresso.

She quickly emptied her glass and ordered another drink. He orders the same thing every time he goes to this restaurant.

I'll be ordering a take-away later. Would you like anything? B2 [ T ] If a person in authority orders someone to do something, or orders something to be done, they tell someone to do it:.

The management has ordered a cutback in spending. I order you to put down your weapon. The police have been ordered to pay substantial damages to the families of the two dead boys.

An inquiry was ordered into the recent rail disaster. In a level voice , he ordered the soldiers to aim and fire.

You can't just come in here and start ordering people around. The documents have been ordered alphabetically.

I've ordered the application forms into three groups. Idiom order your thoughts. Phrasal verbs order sb around. His defense was that he was only obeying orders.

Please arrange the books in alphabetical order by author. I want to leave my desk in order before I go on vacation.

Observers were present to preserve order during the voting. The set of power tools are all in good working order. In the United States, the states of North Dakota and South Dakota are the only states where German is the most common language spoken at home after English.

The impact of nineteenth century German immigration to southern Chile was such that Valdivia was for a while a Spanish-German bilingual city with "German signboards and placards alongside the Spanish".

In Australia , the state of South Australia experienced a pronounced wave of immigration in the s from Prussia particularly the Silesia region.

With the prolonged isolation from other German speakers and contact with Australian English , a unique dialect known as Barossa German developed, spoken predominantly in the Barossa Valley near Adelaide.

Usage of German sharply declined with the advent of World War I , due to the prevailing anti-German sentiment in the population and related government action.

It continued to be used as a first language into the 20th century, but its use is now limited to a few older speakers. German migration to New Zealand in the 19th century was less pronounced than migration from Britain, Ireland, and perhaps even Scandinavia.

Despite this there were significant pockets of German-speaking communities which lasted until the first decades of the 20th century.

German speakers settled principally in Puhoi , Nelson , and Gore. At the last census , 36, people in New Zealand spoke German, making it the third most spoken European language after English and French and overall the ninth most spoken language.

There is also an important German creole being studied and recovered, named Unserdeutsch , spoken in the former German colony of German New Guinea , across Micronesia and in northern Australia i.

The risk of its extinction is serious and efforts to revive interest in the language are being implemented by scholars.

Like French and Spanish , German has become a classic second foreign language in the western world, as English Spanish in the US is well established as the first foreign language.

According to a survey, 47 million people within the EU i. The basis of Standard German is the Luther Bible , which was translated by Martin Luther and which had originated from the Saxon court language it being a convenient norm.

It is important to note, however, that the colloquial standard German differs greatly from the formal written language, especially in grammar and syntax, in which it has been influenced by dialectal speech.

Standard German differs regionally among German-speaking countries in vocabulary and some instances of pronunciation and even grammar and orthography.

This variation must not be confused with the variation of local dialects. Even though the regional varieties of standard German are only somewhat influenced by the local dialects, they are very distinct.

German is thus considered a pluricentric language. In most regions, the speakers use a continuum from more dialectal varieties to more standard varieties depending on the circumstances.

In German linguistics , German dialects are distinguished from varieties of standard German. The varieties of standard German refer to the different local varieties of the pluricentric standard German.

They differ only slightly in lexicon and phonology. In certain regions, they have replaced the traditional German dialects, especially in Northern Germany.

In the German-speaking parts of Switzerland , mixtures of dialect and standard are very seldom used, and the use of Standard German is largely restricted to the written language.

Swiss Standard German is used in the Swiss education system, while Austrian Standard German is officially used in the Austrian education system.

A mixture of dialect and standard does not normally occur in Northern Germany either. Because their linguistic distance is greater, they do not mesh with Standard German the way that High German dialects such as Bavarian, Swabian, and Hessian can.

The German dialects are the traditional local varieties of the language; many of them are not mutually intelligibile with standard German, and they have great differences in lexicon , phonology , and syntax.

If a narrow definition of language based on mutual intelligibility is used, many German dialects are considered to be separate languages for instance in the Ethnologue.

However, such a point of view is unusual in German linguistics. The variation among the German dialects is considerable, with often only neighbouring dialects being mutually intelligible.

Some dialects are not intelligible to people who know only Standard German. Middle Low German was the lingua franca of the Hanseatic League.

It was the predominant language in Northern Germany until the 16th century. In , the Luther Bible was published.

The translation is considered to be an important step towards the evolution of the Early New High German. It aimed to be understandable to a broad audience and was based mainly on Central and Upper German varieties.

The Early New High German language gained more prestige than Low German and became the language of science and literature.

Around the same time, the Hanseatic League, based around northern ports, lost its importance as new trade routes to Asia and the Americas were established, and the most powerful German states of that period were located in Middle and Southern Germany.

The 18th and 19th centuries were marked by mass education in Standard German in schools. Gradually, Low German came to be politically viewed as a mere dialect spoken by the uneducated.

Sometimes, Low Saxon and Low Franconian varieties are grouped together because both are unaffected by the High German consonant shift.

However, the proportion of the population who can understand and speak it has decreased continuously since World War II.

The largest cities in the Low German area are Hamburg and Dortmund. The Low Franconian dialects are the dialects that are more closely related to Dutch than to Low German.

Most of the Low Franconian dialects are spoken in the Netherlands and Belgium , where they are considered as dialects of Dutch, which is itself a Low Franconian language.

These dialects are more closely related to Dutch also North Low Franconian than the South Low Franconian dialects also referred to as East Limburgish and, east of the Rhine , Bergish , which are spoken in the south of the German Low Franconian language area.

The High German varieties spoken by the Ashkenazi Jews have several unique features and are considered as a separate language, Yiddish , written with the Hebrew alphabet.

Modern Standard German is mostly based on Central German dialects. These dialects are considered as. Luxembourgish as well as the Transylvanian Saxon dialect spoken in Transylvania are based on Moselle Franconian dialects.

They consist of the East and South Franconian dialects. The East Franconian dialect branch is one of the most spoken dialect branches in Germany.

These dialects are spoken in the region of Franconia and in the central parts of Saxon Vogtland. The largest cities in the East Franconian area are Nuremberg and Würzburg.

South Franconian is mainly spoken in northern Baden-Württemberg in Germany, but also in the northeasternmost part of the region of Alsace in France.

While these dialects are considered as dialects of German in Baden-Württemberg, they are considered as dialects of Alsatian in Alsace most Alsatian dialects are Low Alemannic , however.

The largest cities in the South Franconian area are Karlsruhe and Heilbronn. The Upper German dialects are the Alemannic dialects in the west and the Bavarian dialects in the east.

The Alemannic dialects are considered as Alsatian in Alsace. The largest cities in the Alemannic area are Stuttgart and Zürich.

The largest cities in the Bavarian area are Vienna and Munich. German is a fusional language with a moderate degree of inflection , with three grammatical genders ; as such, there can be a large number of words derived from the same root.

German nouns inflect by case, gender, and number:. This degree of inflection is considerably less than in Old High German and other old Indo-European languages such as Latin , Ancient Greek , and Sanskrit , and it is also somewhat less than, for instance, Old English , modern Icelandic , or Russian.

The three genders have collapsed in the plural. In nouns, inflection for case is required in the singular for strong masculine and neuter nouns only in the genitive and in the dative only in fixed or archaic expressions , and even this is losing ground to substitutes in informal speech.

Weak masculine nouns share a common case ending for genitive, dative, and accusative in the singular. Feminine nouns are not declined in the singular.

The plural has an inflection for the dative. In total, seven inflectional endings not counting plural markers exist in German: -s, -es, -n, -ns, -en, -ens, -e.

In German orthography, nouns and most words with the syntactical function of nouns are capitalised to make it easier for readers to determine the function of a word within a sentence Am Freitag ging ich einkaufen.

Like the other Germanic languages, German forms noun compounds in which the first noun modifies the category given by the second: Hundehütte "dog hut"; specifically: "dog kennel".

Unlike English, whose newer compounds or combinations of longer nouns are often written "open" with separating spaces, German like some other Germanic languages nearly always uses the "closed" form without spaces, for example: Baumhaus "tree house".

Like English, German allows arbitrarily long compounds in theory see also English compounds. The longest German word verified to be actually in albeit very limited use is Rindfleischetikettierungsüberwachungsaufgabenübertragungsgesetz , which, literally translated, is "beef labelling supervision duties assignment law" [from Rind cattle , Fleisch meat , Etikettierung s labelling , Überwachung s supervision , Aufgaben duties , Übertragung s assignment , Gesetz law ].

However, examples like this are perceived by native speakers as excessively bureaucratic, stylistically awkward, or even satirical.

The meaning of basic verbs can be expanded and sometimes radically changed through the use of a number of prefixes.

Other prefixes have only the vaguest meaning in themselves; ver- is found in a number of verbs with a large variety of meanings, as in ver suchen to try from suchen to seek , ver nehmen to interrogate from nehmen to take , ver teilen to distribute from teilen to share , ver stehen to understand from stehen to stand.

Other examples include the following: haften to stick , ver haften to detain ; kaufen to buy , ver kaufen to sell ; hören to hear , auf hören to cease ; fahren to drive , er fahren to experience.

Many German verbs have a separable prefix, often with an adverbial function. In finite verb forms, it is split off and moved to the end of the clause and is hence considered by some to be a "resultative particle".

For example, mitgehen , meaning "to go along", would be split, giving Gehen Sie mit? Literal: "Go you with? German word order is generally with the V2 word order restriction and also with the SOV word order restriction for main clauses.

For polar questions , exclamations, and wishes, the finite verb always has the first position. In subordinate clauses, the verb occurs at the very end.

German requires a verbal element main verb or auxiliary verb to appear second in the sentence. The verb is preceded by the topic of the sentence.

The element in focus appears at the end of the sentence. For a sentence without an auxiliary, these are several possibilities:. The position of a noun in a German sentence has no bearing on its being a subject, an object or another argument.

In a declarative sentence in English, if the subject does not occur before the predicate, the sentence could well be misunderstood.

The flexible word order also allows one to use language "tools" such as poetic meter and figures of speech more freely.

When an auxiliary verb is present, it appears in second position, and the main verb appears at the end. This occurs notably in the creation of the perfect tense.

Many word orders are still possible:. The main verb may appear in first position to put stress on the action itself. The auxiliary verb is still in second position.

Sentences using modal verbs place the infinitive at the end. For example, the English sentence "Should he go home? Thus, in sentences with several subordinate or relative clauses, the infinitives are clustered at the end.

Compare the similar clustering of prepositions in the following highly contrived English sentence: "What did you bring that book that I do not like to be read to out of up for?

German subordinate clauses have all verbs clustered at the end. Given that auxiliaries encode future , passive , modality , and the perfect , very long chains of verbs at the end of the sentence can occur.

In these constructions, the past participle formed with ge- is often replaced by the infinitive. The order at the end of such strings is subject to variation, but the second one in the last example is unusual.

Most German vocabulary is derived from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family. Latin words were already imported into the predecessor of the German language during the Roman Empire and underwent all the characteristic phonetic changes in German.

Their origin is thus no longer recognizable for most speakers e. Borrowing from Latin continued after the fall of the Roman Empire during Christianization, mediated by the church and monasteries.

Another important influx of Latin words can be observed during Renaissance humanism. In a scholarly context, the borrowings from Latin have continued until today, in the last few decades often indirectly through borrowings from English.

During the 15th to 17th centuries, the influence of Italian was great, leading to many Italian loanwords in the fields of architecture, finance, and music.

The influence of the French language in the 17th to 19th centuries resulted in an even greater import of French words. The English influence was already present in the 19th century, but it did not become dominant until the second half of the 20th century.

Thus, Notker Labeo was able to translate Aristotelian treatises into pure Old High German in the decades after the year Even today, there are movements that try to promote the Ersatz substitution of foreign words that are deemed unnecessary with German alternatives.

As in English, there are many pairs of synonyms due to the enrichment of the Germanic vocabulary with loanwords from Latin and Latinized Greek.

These words often have different connotations from their Germanic counterparts and are usually perceived as more scholarly.

The size of the vocabulary of German is difficult to estimate. The Deutsches Wörterbuch German Dictionary initiated by Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm already contained over , headwords in its first edition.

The modern German scientific vocabulary is estimated at nine million words and word groups based on the analysis of 35 million sentences of a corpus in Leipzig, which as of July included million words in total.

The Duden is the de facto official dictionary of the German language, first published by Konrad Duden in The Duden is updated regularly, with new editions appearing every four or five years.

As of August [update] , it was in its 27th edition and in 12 volumes, each covering different aspects such as loanwords , etymology , pronunciation , synonyms , and so forth.

The first of these volumes, Die deutsche Rechtschreibung German Orthography , has long been the prescriptive source for the spelling of German.

The Duden has become the bible of the German language, being the definitive set of rules regarding grammar, spelling and usage of German.

It is the Austrian counterpart to the German Duden and contains a number of terms unique to Austrian German or more frequently used or differently pronounced there.

Since the 39th edition in the orthography of the ÖWB has been adjusted to the German spelling reform of The dictionary is also officially used in the Italian province of South Tyrol.

This is a selection of cognates in both English and German. Instead of the usual infinitive ending -en , German verbs are indicated by a hyphen after their stems.

Words that are written with capital letters in German are nouns. German is written in the Latin alphabet. Because legibility and convenience set certain boundaries, compounds consisting of more than three or four nouns are almost exclusively found in humorous contexts.

In contrast, although English can also string nouns together, it usually separates the nouns with spaces. For example, "toilet bowl cleaner".

Umlaut vowels ä, ö, ü are commonly transcribed with ae, oe, and ue if the umlauts are not available on the keyboard or other medium used.

Some operating systems use key sequences to extend the set of possible characters to include, amongst other things, umlauts; in Microsoft Windows this is done using Alt codes.

German readers understand these transcriptions although they appear unusual , but they are avoided if the regular umlauts are available, because they are a makeshift and not proper spelling.

In Westphalia and Schleswig-Holstein, city and family names exist where the extra e has a vowel lengthening effect, e.

There is no general agreement on where letters with umlauts occur in the sorting sequence. Telephone directories treat them by replacing them with the base vowel followed by an e.

Some dictionaries sort each umlauted vowel as a separate letter after the base vowel, but more commonly words with umlauts are ordered immediately after the same word without umlauts.

As an example in a telephone book Ärzte occurs after Adressenverlage but before Anlagenbauer because Ä is replaced by Ae.

In a dictionary Ärzte comes after Arzt , but in some dictionaries Ärzte and all other words starting with Ä may occur after all words starting with A.

Written German also typically uses an alternative opening inverted comma quotation mark as in "Guten Morgen! Until the early 20th century, German was mostly printed in blackletter typefaces mostly in Fraktur , but also in Schwabacher and written in corresponding handwriting for example Kurrent and Sütterlin.

These variants of the Latin alphabet are very different from the serif or sans-serif Antiqua typefaces used today, and the handwritten forms in particular are difficult for the untrained to read.

The printed forms, however, were claimed by some to be more readable when used for Germanic languages.

The Nazis initially promoted Fraktur and Schwabacher because they were considered Aryan , but they abolished them in , claiming that these letters were Jewish.

The Fraktur script however remains present in everyday life in pub signs, beer brands and other forms of advertisement, where it is used to convey a certain rusticality and antiquity.

Many Antiqua typefaces also include the long s. A specific set of rules applies for the use of long s in German text, but nowadays it is rarely used in Antiqua typesetting.

The long s only appears in lower case. The orthography reform of led to public controversy and considerable dispute.

After 10 years, without any intervention by the federal parliament, a major revision was installed in , just in time for the coming school year.

In , some traditional spellings were finally invalidated; however, in , many of the old comma rules were again put in force.

Traditionally, this letter was used in three situations:. In German, vowels excluding diphthongs; see below are either short or long , as follows:.

In general, the short vowels are open and the long vowels are close. Whether any particular vowel letter represents the long or short phoneme is not completely predictable, although the following regularities exist:.

Both of these rules have exceptions e. For an i that is neither in the combination ie making it long nor followed by a double consonant or cluster making it short , there is no general rule.

In some cases, there are regional differences. In central Germany Hesse , the o in the proper name "Hoffmann" is pronounced long, whereas most other Germans would pronounce it short.

The same applies to the e in the geographical name " Mecklenburg " for people in that region. German vowels can form the following digraphs in writing and diphthongs in pronunciation ; note that the pronunciation of some of them ei, äu, eu is very different from what one would expect when considering the component letters:.

With approximately 26 phonemes, the German consonant system exhibits an average number of consonants in comparison with other languages.

The consonant inventory of the standard language is shown below. German does not have any dental fricatives as English th.

The th sound, which the English language still has, disappeared on the continent in German with the consonant shifts between the 8th and 10th centuries.

The German language is used in German literature and can be traced back to the Middle Ages , with the most notable authors of the period being Walther von der Vogelweide and Wolfram von Eschenbach.

The Nibelungenlied , whose author remains unknown, is also an important work of the epoch. The fairy tales collected and published by Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm in the 19th century became famous throughout the world.

Reformer and theologian Martin Luther , who was the first to translate the Bible into German, is widely credited for having set the basis for the modern "High German" language.

English has taken many loanwords from German, often without any change of spelling aside from frequently eliminating umlauts and not capitalizing nouns :.

The government-backed Goethe-Institut [85] named after Johann Wolfgang von Goethe aims to enhance the knowledge of German culture and language within Europe and the rest of the world.

This is done by holding exhibitions and conferences with German-related themes, and providing training and guidance in the learning and use of the German language.

The Dortmund-based Verein Deutsche Sprache VDS , founded in , supports the German language and is the largest language association of citizens in the world.

The VDS has more than thirty-five thousand members in over seventy countries. Its founder, statistics professor Dr. Walter Krämer, has remained chairperson of the association from its formation.

The German state broadcaster Deutsche Welle provides radio and television broadcasts in German and 30 other languages across the globe.

Deutsche Welle also provides an e-learning website for teaching German. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For other uses, see Deutsch disambiguation and German disambiguation. Not to be confused with Germanic languages. West Germanic language. This article needs additional citations for verification.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

Language family. German Standard German. Austrian Standard German. Writing system. Signed forms. Co- Official and majority language.

Co-official, but not majority language. Non-statutory minority language. Main article: History of German.

Main article: Old High German. Old Frisian Alt-Friesisch. Old Saxon Alt-Sächsisch. Old Franconian Alt-Fränkisch.

Old Alemannic Alt-Alemannisch. Old Bavarian Alt-Bairisch. Main article: Middle High German. Main article: Early New High German.

Main article: Geographical distribution of German speakers. Austria 8. Switzerland 5. Italy South Tyrol 0. Other 7. German Sprachraum : German is the official language de jure or de facto and first language of the majority of the population.

German is a co-official language but not the first language of the majority of the population.

German or a variety of German is spoken by a sizeable minority but has no legal recognition.

Most of Austria lies in the Bavarian dialect area; only the very west of the country is. Alemannic -speaking. Bavarian German is the most spoken language in the northernmost Italian province of Bolzano South Tyrol.

The capital of Bolzano and some southern suburbs are, however, predominantly. Italian -speaking.

Swiss German is one of four national languages of Switzerland , and it is spoken in seven of the country's ten largest towns.

Luxembourg lies in the Moselle Franconian dialect area. In Belgium , German is spoken in the country's German-speaking Community , in the very east of the country.

The Alemannic and. Franconian dialects of Alsace , northeastern France , are endangered. The Franconian and.

Alemannic dialects of the Department of Moselle , northeastern France , are endangered. Main article: List of territorial entities where German is an official language.

Main article: German language in Namibia. Main article: Brazilian German. Main article: Standard German. Main article: German dialects.

Main article: Low German. Main article: High German languages. Main article: German grammar. Further information: Grammatical gender in German.

Main article: German verbs. Main articles: German orthography and German braille. German alphabet.

Listen to a German speaker recite the alphabet in German. Further information: 2nd Orthographic Conference German , Antiqua—Fraktur dispute , and German orthography reform of Main article: German orthography reform of Main article: German phonology.

Further information: High German consonant shift. Main article: German literature. Main article: List of German expressions in English.

Main article: Goethe-Institut. Main article: Deutsche Welle. Language portal Germany portal Austria portal Switzerland portal.

In the second half of the 19th century, Germany displaced France as the prime role model for Chile. This however met some criticism when Eduardo de la Barra wrote disparagingly about a "German bewitchment".

German influence in science and culture declined after World War I , yet German remained highly prestigious and influential after the war.


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