Der Schüler David ist ein Computerfreak. Eines Tages loggt er sich zufällig in ein geheimes Computer-System ein. Er wird zum Spiel aufgefordert und ahnt nicht, was daraus folgen kann. Das Computer-System kontrolliert nämlich das. WarGames – Kriegsspiele ist ein US-amerikanischer Film von John Badham aus dem Jahr Die Hauptrollen spielten Matthew Broderick und Ally Sheedy. WarGames, Wargames oder War Games ist der Titel folgender Filme: WarGames – Kriegsspiele (Originaltitel WarGames), amerikanischer Spielfilm von ngv2016.se: Finden Sie WarGames - Kriegsspiele in unserem vielfältigen DVD- & Blu-ray-Angebot. Gratis Versand durch Amazon ab einem Bestellwert von 29€. WarGames - Kriegsspiele. ()1h 52min 27 Stunden und 59 Minuten bleiben David Lightman, um das nukleare Desaster eines Dritten Weltkrieges zu.
Wargames - Kriegsspiele. WarGames. USA, ThrillerScience Fiction. Ein junger Hacker findet ein Programm, das er für ein Kriegsspiel hält. Doch das. Übersetzung im Kontext von „WarGames“ in Englisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: And Sabrina reminds me a lot of the young Ally Sheedy from WarGames. WarGames - Kriegsspiele ein Film von John Badham mit Matthew Broderick, Dabney Coleman. Inhaltsangabe: Für den jungen Computerfreak David (Matthew. Wargames - Kriegsspiele. WarGames. USA, ThrillerScience Fiction. Ein junger Hacker findet ein Programm, das er für ein Kriegsspiel hält. Doch das. WarGames - Kriegsspiele ein Film von John Badham mit Matthew Broderick, Dabney Coleman. Inhaltsangabe: Für den jungen Computerfreak David (Matthew. David Lightman, die Hauptfigur von Wargames, war dagegen absolut konträr. Als Teenager der 80er Jahre ging er noch zur Schule, räumte sein Zimmer nicht. Alle Infos, Bilder und Trailer zum SciFi-Thriller WarGames / War Games - Kriegsspiele, mit Matthew Broderick in der Rolle eines jungen Nerds. Übersetzung im Kontext von „WarGames“ in Englisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: And Sabrina reminds me a lot of the young Ally Sheedy from WarGames. Wo kann man diesen Film schauen? Filmtyp Spielfilm. Wenn ein versuchsweise check this out Passwort vom System nicht akzeptiert wird, bekommt der Angreifer keinen Hinweis, welche Stellen bereits richtig gewesen sind. Verstehe aber natürlich dennoch learn more here du meinst. Harold Schneider. Bild: IMS Associates. Ein Gravatar -Bild neben meinen Kommentaren anzeigen. Ein toller Hackerfilm… 0. Dabney Coleman. Ich musste wirklich this web page, warum ein führendes Unternehmen wie Warner Bros. Die Kommandozentrale im Film. Der kurze elektronische Soundeffekt am Anfang dieser Durchsage stammt natürlich ebenfalls aus dem Arcadehit Galaga. Wissenswertes. Seitenverhältnis. Das Milliarden Dollar Gehirn. Junider Film sei gleichzeitig emotional wie auch intellektuell interessant. Als aber das Team von David und Jennifer bei please click for source Dreharbeiten überraschend gut funktionierte, wurde die eigentliche Nebenrolle sogar noch kurzfristig article source. Wer sich aber dafür interessiert, sollte stram anime diese Artikel unbedingt etwas genauer ansehen — es lohnt sich!
Other campaigns can feel awfully stilted in comparison. Bored of Overlord? Try a landing in Tanga, German East Africa, in Tired of tussling with Tommies and Yanks?
Link: Steam , GOG. Worried about multiplayer mischief, 1C Maddox worked hard to keep aircraft modders out of this landmark sim.
Bored of playing sky tig with Spits, Bfs and Zeros? It will nod enthusiastically if you express an interest in catapult-launched Hurricanes and North Atlantic convoy protection.
It will give a jaunty thumbs-up when asked if a weekend in twin-boomed Dutch Fokkers or Crimson Skies-style Shindens is a possibility.
As with SMG, enemy generals have palpable characters. Cunning, defensive, opportunist Lines of tiny soldiers surge and pivot, flank and fall back.
Caseshot-spitting cannons leave fields and thickets littered with corpses. An elegant control system movement arrows are drag-daubed directly onto the terrain , a low price, and an unusual consequence-rich branching campaign, ensure UGG stands out in the wargaming crowd.
Much of the tactical texture comes from the clever way pilot experience and aircraft movement is represented. As fliers rack up kills and amass flying hours, you get to add new manoeuvres to their repertoires.
More manoeuvres equals more dogfight options, more chances to get on the tail of that Albatross or limp home in that battered Pup.
They bob. They squirm. They slip and shake. Handsome plane models, well-appointed cockpits and brutal damage effects complement the feisty FMs.
You can swell your hangar bit by bit by buying single plane DLC or you can opt for one of the two starter packs—Iron Cross or Channel Battles—each of which come with around nine extra rides.
Some sunken-eyed sub sim veterans will argue Silent Hunter 3 should have occupied this berth. Intelligently modded, SH3 is a staggeringly strong sim: realistic, atmospheric, and—thanks to a freelance-friendly campaign—preposterously replayable.
The Pacific-plying SH4 sneaks in just ahead of its Atlantic ancestor, mainly on account of its prettier vistas and vessels, superior crew management system, and taskable auxiliary units.
The opportunities it affords to deliver commandos, recover downed pilots, and roam an ocean sprinkled with contested islands also help.
Be sure to stow classy adjuncts such as Reel Fleet Boat 2. If army approval, blue-chip ballistics, and an uncommonly civilised multiplayer scene are more important to you in a tank game than stunning views, bump-mapped beret badges, and bargain-basement pricing, then this is a sim you need to investigate.
Nine countries currently use SBPPE to train their tankers, the powerful scenario editor, multi-crew capability, and RTS-style map layer enabling coordination and command skills to be tested alongside shell-slinging proficiency.
Where other operational offerings expect you to spend hours laboriously chipping holes in torpid enemy lines, UoC encourages rapid thrusts and bold breakthroughs.
A simple yet resonant supply mechanic makes every offensive a fascinating gamble. As you scramble to secure VLs or pocket clusters of hostile units those cut off from supply sources quickly weaken one of the canniest AIs in the business is often attempting to pocket your pocketers.
A sequel introducing amphibious landings and para drops is en route. At some point circa , sim devs lost interest in sumptuous dynamic campaigns.
You choose one of historically based Western Front squadrons, flying plausible randomly-generated missions until the Armistice arrives or the Grim Reaper reaps.
Thanks to interesting mixed-ability AI, a nerve-fraying mechanical failure system, and a battlespace teeming with incidental activity, those missions rarely go according to plan.
Rise of Flight has the livelier flight models, but WOFF brings the air war to life more successfully than any of its peers.
The Credit Crunch and a disappearing distributor saw to that. The more you play this gritty Ost Front tank sim, the crueller that seems. Panzer Elite SE has the theatre variety and superior interface, but SF models the claustrophobic brutality of s armoured warfare with more conviction.
Is that protuberance on the horizon an AT gun, a hull-down StuG, or merely a stack of timber? Best give it a 76mm prod just in case. Please deactivate your ad blocker in order to see our subscription offer.
Comments Shares. Link: Official site AGEod creations are an acquired taste well worth acquiring. Link: Official site Beware!
Link: Official site Most wargames cast us as incorporeal control freaks—lunatic leaders determined to spell out every order and nursemaid every unit.
Link: Official site The history of this staggeringly ambitious F sim is as long and wiggly as the Norwegian coast. Link: Official site Like a faithful multi-role combat aircraft that stays in service long after its planned withdrawal date, EECH is simply too useful to retire.
Link: Official site Some sunken-eyed sub sim veterans will argue Silent Hunter 3 should have occupied this berth.
Link: Official site If army approval, blue-chip ballistics, and an uncommonly civilised multiplayer scene are more important to you in a tank game than stunning views, bump-mapped beret badges, and bargain-basement pricing, then this is a sim you need to investigate.
Furthermore, most manufacturers do not sell ready-to-play models, they sell boxes of model parts, which the players are expected to assemble and paint themselves.
This requires skill, time, and money, but many players actually prefer it this way because it gives them a way to show off their artistic skill.
Miniature wargaming is as much about artistry as it is about play. A board wargame is played on a board that has a more-or-less fixed layout and is supplied by the game's manufacturer.
This is in contrast to customizable playing fields made with modular components, such as in miniature wargaming. In block wargaming , the Fog of War is built into the game by representing units with upright wooden blocks that are marked on only one face, which is oriented towards the player who owns the block.
The opponent cannot see the markings from his position. The first such block wargame was Quebec by Columbia Games previously named Gamma Two Games , depicting the campaign surrounding the Battle of the Plains of Abraham.
Because of their nature, cards are well suited for abstract games, as opposed to the simulation aspects of wargames.
Traditional card games are not considered wargames even when nominally about the same subject such as the game War.
An early card wargame was Nuclear War , a 'tongue-in-cheek game of the end of the world', first published in and still published today by Flying Buffalo.
It does not simulate how any actual nuclear exchange would happen, but it is still structured unlike most card games because of the way it deals with its subject.
In the late s Battleline Publications a board wargame company produced two card games, Naval War and Armor Supremacy. The first was fairly popular in wargaming circles, and is a light system of naval combat, though again not depicting any 'real' situation players may operate ships from opposing navies side-by-side.
Armor Supremacy was not as successful, but is a look at the constant design and development of new types of tanks during World War II.
The most successful card wargame as a card game and as a wargame would almost certainly be Up Front , a card game about tactical combat in World War II published by Avalon Hill in The abstractness is harnessed in the game by having the deck produce random terrain, and chances to fire, and the like, simulating uncertainty as to the local conditions nature of the terrain, etc.
Dan Verssen Games is a specialist designer and publisher of card games for several genres, including air combat and World War II and Modern land combat.
Also, card driven games CDGs , first introduced in , use a deck of custom cards to drive most elements of the game, such as unit movement activation and random events.
These are, however, distinctly board games, the deck is merely one of the most important elements of the game.
The term "wargame" is rarely used in the video gaming hobby. Most strategy video games depict realistic or semi-realistic scenarios of war anyway, so computer wargames are usually just called "strategy games".
If a strategy video game is especially realistic, they are often called "simulations". Computer wargames have many advantages over traditional wargames.
In a computer game, all the routine procedures and calculations are automated. The player needs only to make strategic and tactical decisions.
The learning curve for the player is smaller, as he doesn't have to master all the mechanics of the game. The gameplay is faster, as a computer can process calculations much faster than a human.
Computer wargames often have more sophisticated mechanics than traditional wargames thanks to automation. Computer games tend to be cheaper than traditional wargames because, being software, they can be copied and distributed very efficiently.
It's easier for a player to find opponents with a computer game: a computer game can use artificial intelligence to provide a virtual opponent, or connect him to another human player over the Internet.
For these reasons, computers are now the dominant medium for wargaming. In the recent years, programs have been developed for computer-assisted gaming as regards to wargaming.
Two different categories can be distinguished: local computer assisted wargames and remote computer assisted wargames.
Local computer assisted wargames are mostly not designed toward recreating the battlefield inside computer memory, but employing the computer to play the role of game master by storing game rules and unit characteristics, tracking unit status and positions or distances, animating the game with sounds and voice and resolving combat.
Flow of play is simple: each turn, the units come up in a random order. Therefore, the more units an opponent has, the more chance he will be selected for the next turn.
When a unit comes up, the commander specifies an order and if offensive action is being taken, a target, along with details about distance.
The results of the order, base move distance and effect to target, are reported, and the unit is moved on the tabletop. All distance relationships are tracked on the tabletop.
All record-keeping is tracked by the computer. Remote computer assisted wargames can be considered as extensions to the concept of play-by-email gaming, however the presentation and actual capabilities are completely different.
They have been designed to replicate the look and feel of existing board or miniatures wargames on the computer. The map and counters are presented to the user who can then manipulate these, more-or-less as if he were playing the physical game, and send a saved file off to his opponent, who can review what has been done without having to duplicate everything on his physical set-up of the game, and respond.
Some allow for both players to get on-line and see each other's moves in real-time. These systems are generally set up so that while one can play the game, the program has no knowledge of the rules, and cannot enforce them.
The human players must have a knowledge of the rules themselves. The idea is to promote the playing of the games by making play against a remote opponent easier , while supporting the industry and reducing copyright issues by ensuring that the players have access to the actual physical game.
The four main programs that can be used to play a number of games each are Aide de Camp , Cyberboard , Vassal and ZunTzu. Aide de Camp is available for purchase, while the other three are offered free.
Wargames were played remotely through the mail, with players sending lists of moves, or orders, to each other through the mail.
In some early PBM systems, six sided dice rolling was simulated by designating a specific stock and a future date and once that date passed, the players would determine an action's outcome using the sales in hundreds value for specific stocks on a specific date and then dividing the NYSE published sales in hundreds by six, using the remainder as the dice result.
Reality Simulations, Inc. The mechanics were the same, merely the medium was faster. At this time, turn-based strategy computer games still had a decent amount of popularity, and many started explicitly supporting the sending of saved-game files through email instead of needing to find the file to send to the opponent by hand.
As with all types of video games, the rise in home networking solutions and Internet access has also meant that networked games are now common and easy to set up.
Hellwig's wargame was the first true wargame because it attempted to be realistic enough to teach useful lessons in military strategy to future army officers.
Hellwig was a college professor and many of his students were aristocrats destined for military service. But Hellwig also wanted to sell his wargame commercially as a recreational item.
Hellwig chose to base his game on chess so as to make it attractive and accessible to chess players. As in chess, Hellwig's game was played on a grid of squares, but it was a much larger grid, and the squares were color-coded to represent different types of terrain: mountains, swamp, water, trenches, etc.
The layout of the terrain was not fixed, which allowed players to create their own custom battlefields. The pieces in the game represented real military units: cavalry, infantry, artillery, and various support units.
As in chess, only a single piece could occupy a square, and the pieces moved square by square, either laterally or diagonally. Over normal terrain, infantry could move a maximum distance of eight squares, dragoons could move twelve squares, and light cavalry could move sixteen squares — intuitively mirroring the speed at which these units move in the real world.
But terrain could impede movement: mountains were impassable, swamps slowed units down, rivers could only be crossed with the help of a special pontoon unit, etc.
A player could only move one piece per turn, or one group of pieces if they were arranged in a rectangle.
A piece could capture an enemy piece by moving into its square, just like in chess, but infantry and artillery pieces could also shoot enemy pieces, at a maximum ranges of two to three squares.
Unlike chess, the pieces had orientation: for instance, an infantry piece could only shoot an enemy piece if they were facing it and flanking it.
Once the game was in progress, however, there was no hiding anything. Hellwig's wargame was a commercial success, and inspired other inventors to develop their own chess-like wargames.
Venturini's game was played on an even larger grid. Like Hellwig's game, it used a modular grid-based board.
But unlike Hellwig's game, Opiz's game used dice rolls to simulate the unpredictability of real warfare. This innovation was controversial at the time.
A criticism of the chess-like wargames of Hellwig, Venturini, and Opiz was that the pieces were constrained to move across a grid in chess-like fashion.
Only a single piece could occupy a square, even if that square represented a square mile; and the pieces had to move square by square, their exact location within a square being immaterial.
The grid also forced the terrain into unnatural forms, such as rivers that flowed in straight lines and bent at right angles. In , a Prussian army officer named Georg Heinrich Rudolf Johann von Reisswitz presented to the Prussian General Staff a highly realistic wargame that he and his father had developed over the years.
Instead of a chess-like grid, this game was played on accurate paper maps of the kind the Prussian army used. This allowed the game to model terrain naturally and simulate battles in real locations.
The pieces could be moved across the map in a free-form manner, subject to terrain obstacles.
The pieces, each of which represented some kind of army unit an infantry battalion, a cavalry squadron, etc. The pieces were painted either red or blue to indicate the faction it belonged to.
The blue pieces were used to represent the Prussian army and red was used to represent some foreign enemy—since then it has been the convention in military wargaming to use blue to represent the faction to which the players actually belong to.
The game used dice to add a degree of randomness to combat. The scale of the map was and the pieces were made to the same proportions as the units they represented, such that each piece occupied the same relative space on the map as the corresponding unit did on the battlefield.
The game modeled the capabilities of the units realistically using data gathered by the Prussian army during the Napoleonic Wars.
Reisswitz's manual provided tables that listed how far each unit type could move in a round according to the terrain it was crossing and whether it was marching, running, galloping, etc.
The game used dice to determine combat results and inflicted casualties, and the casualties inflicted by firearms and artillery decreased over distance.
Unlike chess pieces, units in Reisswitz's game could suffer partial losses before being defeated, which were tracked on a sheet of paper recreational gamers might call this " hitpoint tracking".
The game also had some rules that modeled morale and exhaustion. Reisswitz's game also used an umpire. The players did not directly control the pieces on the game map.
Rather, they wrote orders for their virtual troops on pieces of paper, which they submitted to the umpire.
The umpire then moved the pieces across the game map according to how he judged the virtual troops would interpret and carry out their orders.
The umpire also managed secret information so as to simulate the fog of war. The umpire placed pieces on the map only for those units which he judged both sides could see.
He kept a mental track of where the hidden units were, and only placed their pieces on the map when he judged they came into view of the enemy.
Earlier wargames had fixed victory conditions, such as occupying the enemy's fortress. By contrast, Reisswitz's wargame was open-ended.
The umpire decided what the victory conditions were, if there were to be any, and they typically resembled the goals an actual army in battle might aim for.
The emphasis was on the experience of decision-making and strategic thinking, not on competition. As Reisswitz himself wrote: "The winning or losing, in the sense of a card or board game, does not come into it.
In the English-speaking world, Reisswitz's wargame and its variants are called Kriegsspiel , which is the German word for "wargame".
The Prussian king and the General Staff officially endorsed Reisswitz's wargame, and by the end of the decade every German regiment had bought materials for it.
Over the years, the Prussians developed new variations of Reisswitz's system to incorporate new technologies and doctrine.
Prussian wargaming attracted little attention outside Prussia until , when Prussia defeated France in the Franco-Prussian War.
Many credited Prussia's victory to its wargaming tradition. Livermore published The American Kriegsspiel in , both heavily inspired by Prussian wargames.
The English writer H. Wells developed codified rules for playing with toy soldiers, which he published in a book titled Little Wars This is widely remembered as the first rulebook for miniature wargaming for terrestrial armies, at least.
Little Wars had very simple rules to make it fun and accessible to anyone. Little Wars did not use dice or computation to resolve fights.
For artillery attacks, players used spring-loaded toy cannons which fired little wooden cylinders to physically knock over enemy models.
As for infantry and cavalry, they could only engage in hand-to-hand combat even if the figurines exhibited firearms. When two infantry units fought in close quarters, the units would suffer non-random losses determined by their relative sizes.
Little Wars was designed for a large field of play, such as a lawn or the floor of a large room. An infantryman could move up to one foot per turn, and a cavalryman could move up to two feet per turn.
To measure these distances, players used a two-foot long piece of string. Wells was also the first wargamer to use scale models of buildings, trees, and other terrain features to create a three-dimensional battlefield.
Wells' rulebook failed to invigorate the miniature wargaming community. A possible reason was the two World Wars, which de-glamorized war and caused shortages of tin and lead that made model soldiers expensive.
Miniature wargaming was seen as a niche within the larger hobby of making and collecting model soldiers. In , a California man named Jack Scruby began making inexpensive miniature models for miniature wargames out of type metal.
Scruby's major contribution to the miniature wargaming hobby was to network players across America and the UK. At the time, the miniature wargaming community was minuscule, and players struggled to find each other.
In , Scruby organized the first miniature wargaming convention in America, which was attended by just fourteen people.
From to , he self-published the world's first wargaming magazine, titled The War Game Digest , through which wargamers could publish their rules and share game reports.
It had less than two hundred subscribers, but it did establish a community that kept growing. Around the same time in the United Kingdom, Donald Featherstone began writing an influential series of books on wargaming, which represented the first mainstream published contribution to wargaming since Little Wars.
Such was the popularity of such titles that other authors were able to have published wargaming titles. This output of published wargaming titles from British authors coupled with the emergence at the same time of several manufacturers providing suitable wargame miniatures e.
In , Tony Bath published what was the first ruleset for a miniature wargame set in the medieval period. These rules were a major inspiration for Gary Gygax's Chainmail From to , Games Workshop produced what was the first miniature wargame designed to be used with proprietary models: Warhammer Fantasy.
Earlier miniature wargames were designed to be played using generic models that could be bought from any manufacturer, but Warhammer Fantasy's setting featured original characters with distinctive visual designs, and their models were produced exclusively by Games Workshop.
The first successful commercial board wargame was Tactics by an American named Charles S. What distinguished this wargame from previous ones is that it was mass-produced and all the necessary materials for play were bundled together in a box.
Previous wargames were often just a rulebook and required players to obtain the other materials themselves. Roberts later founded the Avalon Hill Game Company , the first firm that specialized in commercial wargames.
In , Avalon Hill released Gettysburg , which was a retooling of the rules of Tactics , and was based on the historical Battle of Gettysburg.
Gettysburg became the most widely-played wargame yet. Board wargames were more popular than miniature wargames.
One reason was that assembling a playset for miniature wargaming was expensive, time-consuming, and require artisanal skill. Another reason was that board wargames could be played by correspondence.